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Processes » Trials in General » Different Grades and Kinds of Tribunals » The tribunal of the second instance
Canon 1438. Without prejudice to the prescript of can. 1444, §1, n. 1:

1. from the tribunal of a suffragan bishop, appeal is made to the metropolitan tribunal, without prejudice to the prescript of can. 1439;

2. in cases tried in first instance before the metropolitan, appeal is made to the tribunal which the metropolitan has designated in a stable manner with the approval of the Apostolic See;

3. for cases tried before a provincial superior, the tribunal of second instance is under the authority of the supreme moderator; for cases tried before the local abbot, the tribunal of second instance is under the authority of the abbot superior of the monastic congregation.
Canon 1439. §1. If a single tribunal of first instance has been established for several dioceses according to the norm of can. 1423, the conference of bishops must establish a tribunal of second instance with the approval of the Apostolic See unless the dioceses are all suffragan of the same archdiocese.

§2. With the approval of the Apostolic See, a conference of bishops can establish one or more tribunals of second instance in addition to the cases mentioned in §1.

§3. Over the tribunals of second instance mentioned in §§1-2, the conference of bishops or the bishop it designates has all the powers which a diocesan bishop has over his own tribunal.
Processes » Trials in General » Different Grades and Kinds of Tribunals » The tribunals of the Apostolic See
Canon 1444. §1. The Roman Rota judges:

1. in second instance, cases which have been adjudicated by the ordinary tribunals of first instance and brought before the Holy See through legitimate appeal;

2. in third or further instance, cases which the Roman Rota or any other tribunals have already adjudicated unless the matter is a *res iudicata*.

§2. This tribunal also judges in first instance the cases mentioned in can. 1405, §3 and others which the Roman Pontiff, either *motu proprio *or at the request of the parties, has called to his own tribunal and entrusted to the Roman Rota; unless the rescript entrusting the function provides otherwise, the Rota also judges these cases in second and further instance.

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