A trial begins with the citation; it ends not only by the pronouncement of a definitive sentence but also by other methods defined by law.
If the litigating party dies, changes status, or ceases from the office in virtue of which action is taken:
1. if the case has not yet been concluded, the trial is suspended until the heir of the deceased, the successor, or an interested party resumes the litigation;
2. if the case has been concluded, the judge must proceed to the additional acts, after having cited the procurator, if there is one, or otherwise the heir of the deceased or the successor.
§1. If the guardian, curator, or procurator who is necessary according to the norm of cann. 1481, §§1 and 3
ceases from that function, the trial is suspended in the meantime.
§2. The judge, however, is to appoint another guardian or curator as soon as possible; the judge can appoint a procurator for the litigation if the party has neglected to do so within the brief time period established by the judge.
If the parties, without any impediment, propose no procedural act for six months, the trial is abated.
Particular law can establish other terms of abatement.
Abatement takes effect by the law itself against all persons, including minors or those equivalent to minors, and must be declared ex officio, without prejudice to the right of seeking indemnity against guardians, curators, administrators, or procurators, who have not proved that they were not negligent.
Abatement extinguishes the acts of the process but not the acts of the case; indeed these acts can also have force in another trial provided that the case involves the same persons and the same issue; regarding those not party to the case, however, the acts have no force other than that of documents.
Each litigant is to bear the expenses of the abated trial which that litigant has incurred.
§1. The petitioner can renounce the trial at any stage or grade of the trial; likewise both the petitioner and the respondent can renounce either all or only some of the acts of the process.
§2. To renounce a trial, guardians and administrators of juridic persons need the counsel or consent of those whose involvement is required to place acts which exceed the limits of ordinary administration.
§3. To be valid, a renunciation must be written and signed by the party or by a procurator of the party who has a special mandate to do so; it must be communicated to the other party, accepted or at least not challenged by that party, and accepted by the judge.
A renunciation accepted by the judge has the same effects for the acts renounced as the abatement of the trial; it also obliges the renouncing party to pay the expenses for the acts renounced.
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