|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Places|
|Canon 1205.||Sacred places are those which are designated for divine worship or for the burial of the faithful by a dedication or a blessing which the liturgical books prescribe for this purpose.|
|Canon 1206.||The dedication of any place belongs to the diocesan bishop and to those equivalent to him by law; they can entrust the function of carrying out a dedication in their territory to any bishop or, in exceptional cases, to a presbyter.|
|Canon 1207.||Sacred places are blessed by the ordinary; the blessing of churches, however, is reserved to the diocesan bishop. Either of them, moreover, can delegate another priest for this purpose.|
|Canon 1208.||When the dedication or blessing of a church or the blessing of a cemetery has been completed, a document is to be drawn up, one copy of which is to be kept in the diocesan curia and another in the archive of the church.|
|Canon 1209.||The dedication or blessing of any place is sufficiently proven by one witness who is above suspicion, provided that no harm is done to anyone.|
|Canon 1210.||Only those things which serve the exercise or promotion of worship, piety, or religion are permitted in a sacred place; anything not consonant with the holiness of the place is forbidden. In an individual case, however, the ordinary can permit other uses which are not contrary to the holiness of the place.|
|Canon 1211.||Sacred places are violated by gravely injurious actions done in them with scandal to the faithful, actions which, in the judgment of the local ordinary, are so grave and contrary to the holiness of the place that it is not permitted to carry on worship in them until the damage is repaired by a penitential rite according to the norm of the liturgical books.|
|Canon 1212.||Sacred places lose their dedication or blessing if they have been destroyed in large part, or have been turned over permanently to profane use by decree of the competent ordinary or in fact.|
|Canon 1213.||The ecclesiastical authority freely exercises its powers and functions in sacred places.|
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Places » Churches|
|Canon 1214.||By the term church is understood a sacred building designated for divine worship to which the faithful have the right of entry for the exercise, especially the public exercise, of divine worship.|
|Canon 1215.||§1. No church is to be built without the express written consent of the diocesan bishop.
§2. The diocesan bishop is not to give consent unless, after having heard the presbyteral council and the rectors of the neighboring churches, he judges that the new church can serve the good of souls and that the means necessary for building the church and for divine worship will not be lacking.
§3. Although religious institutes have received from the diocesan bishop consent to establish a new house in the diocese or the city, they must also obtain his permission before building a church in a certain and determined place.
|Canon 1216.||In the building and repair of churches, the principles and norms of the liturgy and of sacred art are to be observed, after the advice of experts has been taken into account.|
|Canon 1217.||§1. After construction has been completed properly, a new church is to be dedicated or at least blessed as soon as possible; the laws of the sacred liturgy are to be observed.
§2. Churches, especially cathedrals and parish churches, are to be dedicated by the solemn rite.
|Canon 1218.||Each church is to have its own title which cannot be changed after the church has been dedicated.|
|Canon 1219.||In a church that has legitimately been dedicated or blessed, all acts of divine worship can be performed, without prejudice to parochial rights.|
|Canon 1220.||§1. All those responsible are to take care that in churches such cleanliness and beauty are preserved as befit a house of God and that whatever is inappropriate to the holiness of the place is excluded.
§2. Ordinary care for preservation and fitting means of security are to be used to protect sacred and precious goods.
|Canon 1221.||Entry to a church is to be free and gratuitous during the time of sacred celebrations.|
|Canon 1222.||§1. If a church cannot be used in any way for divine worship and there is no possibility of repairing it, the diocesan bishop can relegate it to profane but not sordid use.
§2. Where other grave causes suggest that a church no longer be used for divine worship, the diocesan bishop, after having heard the presbyteral council, can relegate it to profane but not sordid use, with the consent of those who legitimately claim rights for themselves in the church and provided that the good of souls suffers no detriment thereby.
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Places » Oratories and private chapels|
|Canon 1223.||By the term oratory is understood a place for divine worship designated by permission of the ordinary for the benefit of some community or group of the faithful who gather in it and to which other members of the faithful can also come with the consent of the competent superior.|
|Canon 1224.||§1. The ordinary is not to grant the permission required to establish an oratory unless he has first visited the place destined for the oratory personally or through another and has found it properly prepared.
§2. After permission has been given, however, an oratory cannot be converted to profane use without the authority of the same ordinary.
|Canon 1225.||All sacred celebrations can be performed in legitimately established oratories except those which the law or a prescript of the local ordinary excludes or the liturgical norms prohibit.|
|Canon 1226.||By the term private chapel is understood a place for divine worship designated by permission of the local ordinary for the benefit of one or more physical persons.|
|Canon 1227.||Bishops can establish a private chapel for themselves which possesses the same rights as an oratory.|
|Canon 1228.||Without prejudice to the prescript of can. 1227, the permission of the local ordinary is required for Mass or other sacred celebrations to take place in any private chapel.|
|Canon 1229.||It is fitting for oratories and private chapels to be blessed according to the rite prescribed in the liturgical books. They must, however, be reserved for divine worship alone and free from all domestic uses.|
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Places » Shrines|
|Canon 1230.||By the term shrine is understood a church or other sacred place to which numerous members of the faithful make pilgrimage for a special reason of piety, with the approval of the local ordinary.|
|Canon 1231.||For a shrine to be called a national shrine, the conference of bishops must give its approval; for it to be called an international shrine, the approval of the Holy See is required.|
|Canon 1232.||§1. The local ordinary is competent to approve the statutes of a diocesan shrine; the conference of bishops for the statutes of a national shrine; the Holy See alone for the statutes of an international shrine.
§2. The statutes are to determine especially the purpose, the authority of the rector, and the ownership and administration of goods.
|Canon 1233.||Certain privileges can be granted to shrines whenever local circumstances, the large number of pilgrims, and especially the good of the faithful seem to suggest it.|
|Canon 1234.||§1. At shrines the means of salvation are to be supplied more abundantly to the faithful by the diligent proclamation of the word of God, the suitable promotion of liturgical life especially through the celebration of the Eucharist and of penance, and the cultivation of approved forms of popular piety.
§2. Votive offerings of popular art and piety are to be kept on display in the shrines or nearby places and guarded securely.
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Places » Altars|
|Canon 1235.||§1. An altar, or a table upon which the eucharistic sacrifice is celebrated, is called fixed if it is so constructed that it adheres to the floor and thus cannot be moved; it is called movable if it can be removed.
§2. It is desirable to have a fixed altar in every church, but a fixed or a movable altar in other places designated for sacred celebrations.
|Canon 1236.||§1. According to the traditional practice of the Church, the table of a fixed altar is to be of stone, and indeed of a single natural stone. Nevertheless, another worthy and solid material can also be used in the judgment of the conference of bishops. The supports or base, however, can be made of any material.
§2. A movable altar can be constructed of any solid material suitable for liturgical use.
|Canon 1237.||§1. Fixed altars must be dedicated, and movable altars must be dedicated or blessed, according to the rites prescribed in the liturgical books.
§2. The ancient tradition of placing relics of martyrs or other saints under a fixed altar is to be preserved, according to the norms given in the liturgical books.
|Canon 1238.||§1. An altar loses its dedication or blessing according to the norm of can. 1212.
§2. Altars, whether fixed or movable, do not lose their dedication or blessing if the church or other sacred place is relegated to profane uses.
|Canon 1239.||§1. An altar, whether fixed or movable, must be reserved for divine worship alone, to the absolute exclusion of any profane use.
§2. A body is not to be buried beneath an altar; otherwise, it is not permitted to celebrate Mass on the altar.
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Places » Cemeteries|
|Canon 1240.||§1. Where possible, the Church is to have its own cemeteries or at least areas in civil cemeteries that are designated for the deceased members of the faithful and properly blessed.
§2. If this cannot be achieved, however, then individual graves are to be properly blessed.
|Canon 1241.||§1. Parishes and religious institutes can have their own cemetery.
§2. Other juridic persons or families can also have a special cemetery or tomb, to be blessed according to the judgment of the local ordinary.
|Canon 1242.||Bodies are not to be buried in churches unless it is a question of burying in their own church the Roman Pontiff, cardinals, or diocesan bishops, including retired ones.|
|Canon 1243.||Particular law is to establish appropriate norms about the discipline to be observed in cemeteries, especially with regard to protecting and fostering their sacred character.|
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Times|
|Canon 1244.||§1. It is only for the supreme ecclesiastical authority to establish, transfer, and suppress feast days and days of penance common to the universal Church, without prejudice to the prescript of can. 1246, §2.
§2. Diocesan bishops can decree special feast days or days of penance for their dioceses or places, but only in individual instances.
|Canon 1245.||Without prejudice to the right of diocesan bishops mentioned in can. 87, for a just cause and according to the prescripts of the diocesan bishop, a pastor can grant in individual cases a dispensation from the obligation of observing a feast day or a day of penance or can grant a commutation of the obligation into other pious works. A superior of a religious institute or society of apostolic life, if they are clerical and of pontifical right, can also do this in regard to his own subjects and others living in the house day and night.|
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Times » Feast days|
|Canon 1246.||§1. Sunday, on which by apostolic tradition the paschal mystery is celebrated, must be observed in the universal Church as the primordial holy day of obligation. The following days must also be observed: the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Epiphany, the Ascension, the Body and Blood of Christ, Holy Mary the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her Assumption, Saint Joseph, Saint Peter and Saint Paul the Apostles, and All Saints.
§2. With the prior approval of the Apostolic See, however, the conference of bishops can suppress some of the holy days of obligation or transfer them to a Sunday.
|Canon 1247.||On Sundays and other holy days of obligation, the faithful are obliged to participate in the Mass.
Moreover, they are to abstain from those works and affairs which hinder the worship to be rendered to God, the joy proper to the Lord’s day, or the suitable relaxation of mind and body.
|Canon 1248.||§1. A person who assists at a Mass celebrated anywhere in a Catholic rite either on the feast day itself or in the evening of the preceding day satisfies the obligation of participating in the Mass.
§2. If participation in the eucharistic celebration becomes impossible because of the absence of a sacred minister or for another grave cause, it is strongly recommended that the faithful take part in a liturgy of the word if such a liturgy is celebrated in a parish church or other sacred place according to the prescripts of the diocesan bishop or that they devote themselves to prayer for a suitable time alone, as a family, or, as the occasion permits, in groups of families.
|The Sanctifying Function of the Church » Sacred Places and Times » Sacred Times » Days of penance|
|Canon 1249.||The divine law binds all the Christian faithful to do penance each in his or her own way. In order for all to be united among themselves by some common observance of penance, however, penitential days are prescribed on which the Christian faithful devote themselves in a special way to prayer, perform works of piety and charity, and deny themselves by fulfilling their own obligations more faithfully and especially by observing fast and abstinence, according to the norm of the following canons.|
|Canon 1250.||The penitential days and times in the universal Church are every Friday of the whole year and the season of Lent.|
|Canon 1251.||Abstinence from meat, or from some other food as determined by the Episcopal Conference, is to be observed on all Fridays, unless a solemnity should fall on a Friday. Abstinence and fasting are to be observed on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.|
|Canon 1252.||The law of abstinence binds those who have completed their fourteenth year. The law of fasting binds those who have attained their majority, until the beginning of their sixtieth year. Pastors of souls and parents are to ensure that even those who by reason of their age are not bound by the law of fasting and abstinence, are taught the true meaning of penance.|
|Canon 1253.||The conference of bishops can determine more precisely the observance of fast and abstinence as well as substitute other forms of penance, especially works of charity and exercises of piety, in whole or in part, for abstinence and fast.|
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