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Sanctions in the Church » Offenses and Penalties in General » The Subject Liable to Penal Sanctions
Canon 1321. §1. Any person is considered innocent until the contrary is proved. No one can be punished unless the commission by him or her of an external violation of a law or precept is gravely imputable by reason of malice or of culpability.

§2. A person who deliberately violated a law or precept is bound by the penalty prescribed in that law or precept. If, however, the violation was due to the omission of due diligence, the person is not punished unless the law or precept provides otherwise.

§3. Where there has been an external violation, imputability is presumed, unless it appears otherwise.
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