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General Norms » Ecclesiastical Offices » Provision of Ecclesiastical Office » Election
Canon 172. §1. To be valid, a vote must be:

1. free; therefore the vote of a person who has been coerced directly or indirectly by grave fear or malice to vote for a certain person or different persons separately is invalid;

2. secret, certain, absolute, determined.

§2. Conditions attached to a vote before the election are to be considered as not having been added.
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