|§1. The following are removed from an ecclesiastical office by the law itself:
1. a person who has lost the clerical state;
2. a person who has publicly defected from the Catholic faith or from the communion of the Church;
3. a cleric who has attempted marriage even if only civilly.
§2. The removal mentioned in nn. 2 and 3 can be enforced only if it is established by the declaration of a competent authority.
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